USP 514 Session 6 Notes

Session 6: Sustainable Development for Whom?

Readings

  1. Development: Sustainable for Whom?, Franciscans Paper for United Nations
    1. Sustainable development often advertises itself as beneficial for everyone.
    2. In fact it’s usually not.
    3. The argument is that we need to expand the definition of sustainable development to include human rights and make sure not to intensify or exacerbate harms.
    4. There are a set of myths that undergird the idea that economic development is always positive
      1. People who live in subsistence economies are backwards and uncivilized
        1. This is the opposite of the truth
        2. Subsistence economies give people a lot more free time for art and family and enjoying life
  2. Green Economy – the Next Oxymoron
    1. Ulrich Brand is a German political scientist and a Professor of International Politics at the University of Vienna.
    2. Title of book was Planet Dialectics
      1. Dialectic: the art of investigating or discussing the truth of opinions.
    3. Worldwide resource use is skyrocketing
    4. the concept of a green economy seems to promise an attractive orientation out of the crisis of neoliberalism that became manifest in 2008 and has hit vulnerable countries and social groups
    5. In reality, green economy is what the author calls a dialectic oxymoron meaning these ideas don’t fit together.
    6. De-growth: we need to consume less, instead of just consuming different things. It’s not about switching from Ford to Tesla; it’s about not having cars.
    7. UN Definition: The green economy approach seeks, in principle, to unite under a single banner the entire suite of economic policies and modes of economic analyses of relevance to sustainable development. In practice, this covers a rather broad range of literature and analysis, often with
      somewhat different starting points
    8. “Green growth” is the idea that there is some sustainable way of continuing everything we’ve been doing with tweaks.
    9. Problem diagnoses
      1. adjust prices to reflect the internalization of external costs, encourage sustainable consumption, and implement policies that promote the greening of business and markets more broadly;
      2. implement tax reforms that support environmentally friendly and sustainable practices;
      3. expand public support for sustainable, more energy efficient infrastructural development to conserve and boost natural capital;
      4. enhance research and development programs focused on green technologies (e. g., clean energy);
      5. target public investment to create programs and forge alliances that promote self-sufficient ecologically and socially-sound economic development, and
      6. implement policies that harmonize social goals with existing or future economic policies.
    10. Criticisms of green growth
      1. existing – and even slightly changed – political strategies
        including the orientation of national states towards global
        competitiveness and geopolitical interests as well as
        the promotion of free trade by powerful international
        institutions;
      2. economic institutions like the capitalist market and
        the profit-driven development of technologies which
        in principle do not promote sustainability;
      3. dominant societal orientations like growth at any cost and
        the increasing exploitation of nature; and
      4. power relations under the dominance of elites who aim to
        maintain their status.
  3. Environmental Justice and the Green Economy Report
    1. Examples
      1. Greening leads to gentrification
      2. Three gorges dam
      3. Water privatization
  4. Sustainability is not enough, Peter Marcuse 
    1. Sustainability is not enough
    2. It doesn’t work for everybody
    3. The science is coming from privileged perspectives
    4. It ignores marginalized perspectives
    5. It talks more about problems than solutions
    6. Poverty is not just about a lack of income
      1. It’s also about the things that prevent someone from getting an income: racism, classism, access to financial services, etc

Video
Equitable Development: Social Equity by Design – 48 minutes 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQ7KLfhFBSg

Other Notes

  • Why it is important to transition from a focus on “economic development” to a focus on “sustainable development”?
  • Can the transition from a focus on “economic development” to a focus on “sustainable development be accomplished through a “green economy”?
  • For sustainable development policies to be effective, must they take into account the specific needs of marginalized and vulnerable populations?
  • How do we prioritize the needs of vulnerable populations in sustainable development initiatives and policies?
  • Why is there such entrenched and persistent resistance to prioritizing the needs of vulnerable populations in practice?
  • Can the “green economy” address issues of social inequality and justice?
  • What are the social and cultural implications of Jeffrey Sachs proposing a rapid reduction in fertility rates as required for sustainable development, and with a particular focus on Africa?

USP 514 Session 5 Notes

Session 5: Equitable Sustainable Development

Apparently we are skipping this?

NO REQUIRED READING FOR SESSION FIVE/SIX

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT

  1. Watch the video: The Costs of Inequality: Joseph Stiglitz, TEXxColumbiaSIPA (16 minutes) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GYHT4zJsCdo
  2. Answer the following questions in writing and be prepared to discuss them in class. 
  3. What are Stiglitz’s main points about inequality in the USA?
    1. The economic story of the early American steel town of Gary, Indiana parallels the economic story of the larger country.
    2. Concerns about inequality, poverty, and discrimination in Gary as a microcosm of the larger nation reflect our broader politics, economics, and morals as a nation.
    3. We pay a very high price for these and other social problems.
    4. These problems are getting worse, and the cost is getting higher.
      1. Income inequality
      2. Extreme wealth hoarding by a tiny number of people
      3. While wealth for the extremely-rich is growing dramatically, wealth for everyone else is actually going down.
    5. Incomes and wealth are going down for almost everyone, with only the very rich doing better than they were in the past.
    6. Rent-seekers seize a larger share of the pie rather than making the pie bigger.
      1. Predatory lending
      2. Credit cards
      3. Landlords
    7. America is not a land of opportunity
      1. Almost no one ends up any better off than they started out.
      2. In fact the opposite is true; almost everyone ends up worse off than where they started out.
    8. Students can not discharge their debt even through bankruptcy
      1. Rich parents can pay for school, including graduate school, while everyone else can not, and instead gets debt. This makes it harder for them to succeed both because they can not afford enough education, but also because they have to pay off debt while only being able to do a lower quality of work.
    9. Conservative economic publications like the economist agree with all these points about what the problem is.
  4. Why does Stiglitz conclude that inequality is endangering our future?
    1. Incomes and wealth are going down for almost everyone, with only the very rich doing better than they were in the past.
    2. We pay a high price for inequality, poverty, discrimination, and other social problems.
    3. Students can not discharge their debt even through bankruptcy
    4. Rich parents can pay for school, including graduate school, while everyone else can not, and instead gets debt. This makes it harder for them to succeed both because they can not afford enough education, but also because they have to pay off debt while only being able to do a lower quality of work.
      1. This is a generational issue which will continue to get worse.
  5. How does Stiglitz talk about what market forces around the world tell us about inequality in the United States?
    1. The same conditions do not exist elsewhere which suggests the problems we face are policy choices rather than inevitabilities.
  6. What are Stiglitz’s conclusions at the end of this talk?
    1. We have faced similar crises in the past and we chose to “pull back from the brink” which we can do once again.

 

USP514 Session 4 Notes

September 14th and 16th
Session Four: Sustainable Development in Historical Context
This session will focus on the origins of the concept of sustainable development and how it is connected to the concept of development. Our discussion will be guided by the following questions:

  1. What is meant by the term “development”?
    • To improve the accessibility or availability of resources
    • Policies or technologies that are supposed to improve society
    • United Nations defines development as improving quality of life
  2. What principles undergird the concept of development?
    • Land use planning
    • Reducing waste
    • Limiting externalities
    • Expansion/ growth
  3. What organizations are principally responsible for development efforts?
    • Private equity
    • Public institutions
  4. How is the concept of sustainable development connected to the concept of development?
    • Sustainable development is a reaction to the concept of development
    • Post WW2
      • Many countries involved
      • Huge shifts in industrial production and widespread devastation to existing industrial infrastructure everywhere except the United States
      • United States came out of the war with a major advantage in industrial production capacity
      • This advantage was leveraged to create many new global institutions to reinforce that power and leverage it against any nation which did not comply with our foreign policies
      • Cold war divisions created
        • Economic and political structures created to divide the world into two factions and pit them against each other
        • Financing
          • Aid was given out with conditions which allowed the US to politically transform much of the world, leading to a politically compliant international system where no one had the power to challenge the US’ supremacy.
          • Most of the third world was given debt instead of aid, which they were required to pay back.
          • “Structural adjustment” transferred public institutions and property to private companies along with saddling the nations with debt.
          • Funded extraction of wealth from the developing world
        • Military support
        • Trade agreements
        • Borders
          • Lots of new nations invented out of thin air and pitted against each other
          • Triangular Diplomacy: Kissinger’s doctrine for dividing and conquering China and the USSR
        • Institutions
          • A way of implementing shared ideological frameworks across different nations and cultures
          • International banking systems created
            • World Bank
            • International Monetary Fund
            • Two other now-defunct international banks
          • United Nations
            • Funded by signatories
            • Creates institutions, banking systems
            • Serves as a forum for negotiating international treaties and other issues
          • NATO
        • Political agreements
  5. How is the concept of sustainable development different from the concept of development?
    • The goal of conventional development is typically to make as much money as possible.
      • Neoliberalism and trickle-down economics
      • Chicago school of economics/ neoclassical economics
      • Trickle down and development theory are not an accurate view of the world. They relied on massive government intervention and widespread high wages which now don’t exist. There was a time during the early neoliberal era when wages were high because of the post-war jump in development. This led to a false sense that this was a natural fact rather than a temporary and artificially created situation. This situation no longer exists, and the devotion to this flawed ideology is now contributing to harm rather than good.
    • The UN defines the goal of sustainable development as improving quality of life.
      • Doughnut economics and sustainable/ regenerative design
    • Brundtland Commission
      • Represented the UN and Central Banks to develop an official institutional perspective of sustainable development.
      • Internal definition: Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs of the future.
      • How do we measure these needs?
      • Whose needs do we measure?
    • Pinderhughes definition: The term sustainable development is used differently by different groups and organizations. In this clzss we will use the term to encompass urban planning and policy approaches that can be used to minimize a city’s negative impact on the environment while providing urban residents with the infrastructure and services they need to sustain a high quality of urban life.
  6. What does the concept “anthropocena era” refer to and why is this an important concept?
  7. What is mean by the concept “triple bottom line” and how does it related to the concept of sustainable development?
  8. Are the terms “sustainable development” and “green cities” the same?

Second part

  1. How do different groups and organizations define the term “sustainable development”?
    1.  Bruntland/ Early UN Definition: Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs of the future.
    2. Widespread group of thinkers worked on defining those needs
      1. Three Es
        1. Economy
        2. Environment
        3. Equity
      2. Three Ps
        1. Profit
        2. Planet
        3. People
    3. Next generation of UN research comes up with the 17 SDGs
  2. What do we mean when we use the term “sustainable cities”?
    1. The sustainable development concept is being used in an urban context
  3. What do we mean when we use the term “ecological cities”?
  4. What can we learn from case studies of ecological cities?
  1.  Find one song that focuses on issues of equity.
  2. Bring the
    1. name (Retribution by Tanya Tagaq)
    2. lyrics
    3. tape of the song (on your phone or through a link) to class to share with others.
  3. Be prepared to talk about why you chose this song in relation to our discussion of equity.
    1. It’s a commentary on the exploitation of the tar sands on Inuk lands which benefits white settler colonists while leaving enormous destruction for native people to endure.

 

Other Notes

  • When Haiti overthrew the French slavers, it was required by the international community to reimburse France for the cost of establishing slavery, the cost of the freed slaves, and the future revenue France expected to earn from slavery in Haiti.
    • This has never happened except for Haiti
  • Equitable development is an approach for meeting the needs of underserved communities through policies and programs that reduce disparities while fostering places that are healthy and vibrant. It is increasingly considered a strong place-based action for creating strong and livable communities.
    • Driven by priorities and values as well as clear expectations that the outcomes from development need to be responsive to underserved populations and vulnerable groups, in addition to using innovative design strategies and sustainable policies, acknowledging and understanding both is necessary for sustaining environmental justice.
    • Locally-based approach
    • Shock Doctrine: The opportunity to start an equitable development approach may arise from a catalytic event – such as undertaking a large infrastructure project or a broad civic campaign
      • Unexpected stressors and crises may serve as a catalyst for fundamental social change and the move towards equitable development.
        • Move to worker-owned cooperatives
        • Move to better fire-resistant construction materials
        • Longshoremen union fighting the development of luxury condos at the Port Of Oakland
    • US and international corporate hotel interests pressured Bali through structural adjustment and other means to abandon damaged fishing communities rather than repair them.
      • Military was brought in to force residents out of ancestral homes and demolish them
      • International hotel industry bought the abandoned land and replaced it with hotels
      • If it was unsafe for farmers to live on their ancestral land then how is it safe for hotel industry?
        • Is that really the question we should be asking?
    • Oakland moms saga
      • Unhoused moms move into abandoned property, clean it up and make it livable.
      • Landowners who had abandoned the land demand it back.
      • City offers to buy the home for the moms at market rate
      • Land owner refuses
      • Enormous social pressure and widespread protests
      • Land owner caves
  • Triple Bottom Line
    • as opposed to bottom line = trickle down
    • double bottom line
      • profit + environmental benefits
    • triple bottom line
      • profit + environmental benefits + social equity
  • Many firms which claim to be triple bottom line are not actually
  • Equitable development includes community outreach which drives a set of measurable goals for projects based on needs expressed by the community
  • Equitable development requires accurate and relevant data from the first to the last — what gest measured gets done!
  • To find funding for equitable development, the project needs to leverage equitable community relationships
  • One organization with capacity should lead and coordinate

 

  • Economic vs Ecological cities
    • Economic cities
      • Build as many enormous homes as possible and sell them for as much as possible
      • Create unsustainable transportation networks to allow people to commute enormous distances to work every day
      • Make it cheaper to drive to work versus using transit
      • Pricing transit by distance means people are unlikely to use it when it would be most impactful
      • No bike lanes
      • Pricing water very low for home monoculture
      • Allowing corporations to break the law and emit toxic levels with trivial fines which are tax deductible
    • Ecological cities
      • Make it hard and expensive to own a car
      • Make public transit cheaper than driving
      • Parking fees and restrictions everywhere

REQUIRED READINGS

  1. The Anthropocena Epoch 
  2. Sustainable Development Goals
  3. Growing Cities, Just Cities? Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development, Scott Campbell, Journal of the American Planning Association, Summer, 1996.

USP514 Session 3 Notes

Session Three

Urban Design Principles 
In this session students will work in small groups to discuss the Urban Design Principles outlined in the required reading below; please read carefully and make notes as you read. 

 REQUIRED READING FOR SESSION THREE (click on Session 3 on left side to access reading)

  1. Ten Urban Design Principles Every Humanitarian Should Know

Meta Questions

    1. Who wrote this article and what was their training?
      • 2015 – Samer Saliba is the urban learning manager at the International Rescue Committee
    2. How does the article focus on environmental injustice/justice?
    3. What geographic and/or social context/space does the article focus on?
      • Cities: Urban planning
    4. What are the five (5) main points of the article?
      • See below
    5. What methods did the authors use to collect information discussed in the article?
    6. What did you learn from reading the article?

Content Analysis

  1. Engage the community, they know best what they need
    • Outreach leads to smarter, more efficient strategies
    • Closes knowledge gaps
  2. Data helps, too
    • Quantitative
    • Imperical
  3. Opportunities come from overlap
    • Collaboration is critical to identify innovative solutions
      • NGOs
      • Public institutions
      • Private institutions
  4. Place matters
    • Place determines challenges and opportunities related to quality of life
  5. Because place matters, design matters
    • Reducing commute time adds value for people in cities
  6. Politics persist
    • work with political partners in order to achieve feasible solutions with greater reach
  7. Civil society has a heightened role
    • decisions or actions supported by political power are subject to pressure from civil society
      • churches
      • community organizations
      • protest groups
  8. Be inclusive
    • Ensuring the most vulnerable access the services they need in a way that improves those systems for all
  9. Be visionary
    • seek to enact durable solutions
    • offer more opportunities to realize them
    • demand innovative and long-term solutions that are not only effective, but improve upon the original, pre-crisis condition
  10. Have a long-term plan
    • address immediate needs while striving to achieve a city’s unique vision of the future
    • long-term visions are rarely achieved through an uncoordinated application of projects

Class Notes

  • Urban design is the entire set of processes that go into creating an urban space.
  • What ideas inform the dominant urban design paradigm?
    • Automobile is dominant
    • Market driven perspective
    • Government is responsible for infrastructure working with private sector
    • Zoning regulations extremely critical to land use planning
    • Attracting business is a top priority
    • Support local economic development by sector/industry
    • Ordinary people do not have a voice
    • Social inequalities are supported by urban design processes
  • Breakout groups
    • How are these similar and different from the other ten principles
      1. Engage the community, they know best what they need
        • Outreach leads to smarter, more efficient strategies
        • Closes knowledge gaps
        • Sort of the opposite of the two prevailing paradigms
          • Ordinary people do not have a voice
          • Social inequalities are supported by urban design processes
          • Also fights gentrification and displacement
      2. Data helps, too
        • Quantitative
        • Imperical
        • Surveying to tie in with the first about engaging with the community
        • Helps determine resource allocation
        • Contrasts;
          • People like cars but they are objectively harmful
      3. Opportunities come from overlap
        • Collaboration is critical to identify innovative solutions
          • NGOs
          • Public institutions
          • Private institutions
          • Contrast
            • Neoliberalism is bad because it places the power with the rich and takes collective power away from the people
      4. Place matters
        • Place determines challenges and opportunities related to quality of life
        • Contrast
          • Social inequalities are supported by design processes
            • Who is allowed to live where?
            • Segregation
      5. Because place matters, design matters
        • Reducing commute time adds value for people in cities
        • Contrast
          • Market driven perspective
      6. Politics persist
        • work with political partners in order to achieve feasible solutions with greater reach
        • Contrast
          • Ordinary people do not have a voice
            • Forced to compromise and capitulate to the dominant paradigms without actually solving problems
      7. Civil society has a heightened role
        • decisions or actions supported by political power are subject to pressure from civil society
          • churches
          • community organizations
          • protest groups
      8. Be inclusive
        • Ensuring the most vulnerable access the services they need in a way that improves those systems for all
      9. Be visionary
        • seek to enact durable solutions
        • offer more opportunities to realize them
        • demand innovative and long-term solutions that are not only effective, but improve upon the original, pre-crisis condition
      10. Have a long-term plan
        • address immediate needs while striving to achieve a city’s unique vision of the future
        • long-term visions are rarely achieved through an uncoordinated application of projects
  • NIMBY/Banana: build absolutely nothing anywhere near anything
  • The doughnut economics paradigm is intended as an alternative to the dominant neoliberal economic paradigm.
    • A different way of thinking about the world
      • Natural resources
      • The way people relate to one another

 

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT FOR SESSION THREE CONTINUED

DUE SEPT 9TH 

Watch the video below and be prepared to talk about it in class. This is a complex set of ideas so you may need to watch the video twice to understand the details. Take notes on the concepts and be prepared to talk about them in class. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQCuBGTHwFo
Donut Economics – How economic theories, models, and policies undermine sustainable development

September 9th
Session Three continued: Distributive and Regenerative Design Principles 

This session will focus on how economic theories, models, and policies undermine sustainable development based pm our having already watched the video below.

  • Classical and especially neoclassical/neoliberal economic theory was prediscursively constructed in order to establish itself as a hard science when really it is a social science and its precepts are based on culture, not absolute facts about the world or “economies.”

USP514 Session 2 Notes

Session Two

Challenges in Cities Around the World

This session will focus on identifying contemporary urban planning and policy issues of concern to students in the course.. Identify contemporary urban planning and policy challenges and opportunities. The following question will guide our discussion:

  1. What principles can be used to provide direction for urban administrators as they try to address these challenges and adopt new approaches?

Required Reading

  1. The 10 most important issues facing cities according to their mayors
    1. Economic Development
      • Grants and loans to small businesses
    2. Public Safety
      • Racial policing
      • Community policing
    3. Budget
      • Most cities are spending more on their police than similar sized countries spend on their militaries
      • Militarization of the police
    4. Infrastructure
      • Empty malls
      • Fires
      • Public transportation
      • BRT/Trains
      • Water infrastructure
        • Lead
      • DAPL/water warriors
      • Electric infrastructure
      • Disaster response
    5. Education
      • Inaccessible
      • Expensive
      • Internet access and race
    6. Housing
      • Homelessness is caused by poverty
      • Lack of access
    7. Energy/ Environment
      • Electricity and fires
      • Climate change from bad energy sources
    8. Demographics
      • Gentrification
      • Intersectionality
      • Representation in governance
    9. Technology and Data
      • Increased efficiency
        • But for who
      • Collecting the right data
      • Information hubs
    10. Healthcare
      • Expensive
      • Inaccessible
  2. Five big challenges facing cities around the world
    1. Environmental Threats
      • Flooding
      • Cyclones
      • Heatwaves
      • Epidemics
      • Lighting Siege
      • Wildfires
    2. Resources
      • Oil
      • Water
      • Solar
      • Land for agriculture
    3. Inequality
      • Widening wage gap
      • Racial and ethnic inequality
      • Regional inequality
    4. Technology
      • Infrastructure for access to equality
        • Internet => Education
        • Water
      • Increased efficiency
        • But for who
      • Collecting the right data
      • Information hubs
    5. Governance
      • Who gets represented
      • Biased regulations
      • Cultural competency and representation
  3. The 5 toughest challenges facing cities
    1. Communicating “invisible” problems
      • Use factual scientific information
    2. Financing modern water infrastructure
    3. Transportation grid determines life quality
    4. Reinventing urban environments
    5. Innovating in agriculture to feed 9 billion people
  4. Call it What it is: Anti-Blackness, New York Times editorial
  5. Social Impact of Covid 19, United Nations Report

USP514 Session 1 Notes

Final Questions

  1. What did you learn in each session? (One page each)
  2. How did the class impact your professional development?
  3. How did the class impact your personal development?

Homework Questions for each reading

  1. Who wrote this article and what was their training?
  2. How does the article focus on sustainable development?
  3. What geographic and/or social context/space does the article focus on?
  4. What are the five (5) main points of the article?
  5. What methods did the authors use to collect information discussed in the article?
  6. What did you learn from reading the article?

Session 1-A Homework Questions

  1. What approaches do we want to use in this class to encourage and support as many students as possible to participate in class discussions?
    • Use emojis or type comments in the chat box
    • Raise hands on camera
    • Or just speak
    • calling on people
    • doing a speaking stack in the chat
    • using the reading questions as prompts
    • Cameras on at all times
    • Just turn off mute and talk
    • Don’t be afraid to talk
    • Breakout rooms
    • Using Chat
    • Emojis
    • Keeping track in you interrupt someone
    • Stack
    • Survey by calling folks by number – polling feature in zoom
  2. What guidelines do we want to follow to create a safe and brave classroom space?
    • speak from i
    • one speaker at a time
    • be respectful
      • no put-downs
    • ask for examples from students
    • allow enough time for people to make their whole point
    • step up step back
    • come in with an open mind
    • personal truth
  3. What approaches do we want to use to ensure that students are keeping up with assigned reading?
    • Discussing the readings both as a class and as small groups
      • breakroom room discussions
    • Checking in with students and these questions
  4. What approaches do we want to use to maximize our individual and collective well being during the semester we are spending together as a group in this class?
    • I usually create a private WhatsApp group chat for students in the class. This establishes a cohort effect where students are able to interact outside of class and rely on one another for support and feedback.
    • I usually triage less valuable assignments to devote limited executive function where its most valuable.
  5. What strategies are we using to support our mental and physical health during these challenging times?
    • Use scheduling and task management tools to block out time for all assignments at least a week ahead.
    • Use automated tools to insert any assignments into task and schedule management tools when the assignments are published.
    • Stretch your boddy
    • Do hobbies
    • Reading

Session Notes

  • Discussed different definitions of sustainable development.
    • The professor let us know that none of us understand what sustainable development is.
  • Discussed what other students are thinking or hoping to get out of the class.
  • Professor pointed out that sustainable development is not just about the environment.

 

Second Day

Session 1-B Homework Questions

Without looking at any notes, sources, or references of any kind – write down your answers to the 7 questions below and be prepared to discuss them in class:

  1. What challenges top the to-do list of cities around the world?
    • traffic/ freeways
    • housing
    • capital investments
    • access to food
    • new sources for energy
    • degrowth/ reducing consumption
    • the urban heat island effect
    • displacement/ gentrification
    • inequality
    • waste management
    • population
    • public safety
    • public health
    • making space for nature
    • new technology
    • local/regional planning conflicts
  2. What factors affect the way in which cities experience these challenges differently?
    • Race
    • Class
    • Gender
    • Sexual orientation
    • Ability
    • Religion
    • Ethnicity
    • City budgets
    • NGOs
    • Geography
      • Natural Resources
    • Climate
    • Topography
    • Education
    • Sharing ideas – having a network, hub to share what worked and what didn’t. — curitiba/ ippuc
  3. What are some of the underlying causes of these challenges?
    • Failure of leaderships
    • Generational wealth
    • Generational poverty
    • Systemic injustice and oppression
    • Social constructionism
    • Panopticism
    • Access to information
    • Access to education
    • Historical legacies of nation state
      • Colonialism and slavery
        • Exploitation of people and natural resources
      • Urbanization/ Industrialization
        • Resource extraction
          • Fossil fuels in particular
            • Deforestation
            • Over-consumption
            • Sprawl
    • Unchecked Growth
    • Social inequality
  4. What do you think of or how do you define the concept “development”?
    • I define development as the investment of resources in improving other resources.
    • Having a more efficient distribution of resources
    • It needs to have a racial perspective
  5. What are the main goals of “development”?
    • To increase the value or utility of limited resources
    • Specifically it should help marginalized communities
    • Inclusive
    • Adjusts with time to changing conditions
    • Recognizing limits
    • Increase efficiency
  6. What people or institutions do you think are responsible for promoting “development”?
    • Cities, States, Nations
    • Financial institutions
    • Private developers
    • Giving equity and voice to people who have been left out
  7. How would you define the concept of “sustainable development”? If you do not have an idea about the concept of sustainable development you can say that the concept is new to you and you will learn about it in class this semester. 
    • Sustainable development considers the externalities of the development process and tries to internalize them or minimize them.
    • Ideally, development would be regenerative rather than just sustainable; actually improving the surrounding conditions rather than dumping less externalities on them.