Data: Antivaxxer Prevalence Correlates With Covid Incidence

CJ Trowbridge

USP 493 Data Analysis

2020-12-01

SPSS Final Project Outline

  1. Introduction – what hypothesis you will test and why you expect your independent variable or variables will affect your dependent variable
    • In the recent past, it was legal for California parents to refuse to vaccinate their children in on the basis of various superstitions. I hypothesize that there is a significant correlation between covid infection rates and the rates at which parents chose not to vaccinate their children before such decisions were banned. I am using counties as the unit of analysis to test this hypothesis.
  2. Brief description of the data you will use
    • There are several datasets that I will need to compile in order to test my hypothesis.
    • First, I need the covid case data by county. I am using the most recently published dataset from Johns Hopkins.
    • Second, I need the population for each county in order to calculate the percentage of the population that has become infected with covid. I am using the 2019 census population numbers.
    • Third, I need the kindergarten vaccination data from the year before the ban on exemptions happened. I got this from the California Department of Public Health Archives.
  3. Univariate statistics for each variable you will use in your hypothesis. Discussion of what these tables tell you.
    • The kindergarten vaccination data for each county is my independent variable.
    • To get my dependent variable, I divide the covid infections by the population for each county in order to get the case incidence numbers for each county.
    • Here’s what it all looks like put together;
  4. Hypothesis testing. What do the statistics tell you.
    • In order to visually compare the two values for each county, I first sorted the data by the independent variable’s value. I then created a combo line-chart with two y-axes plus an x axis. The x axis in this chart is the county name. The dependent variable is on the second y-axis. Initially, the graph was not so clear to look at in SPSS. I asked the professor how to sort the x-axis by the value of the left y-axis but apparently that feature does not exist in SPSS…
    • …So I moved to Excel.
    • But first I ran the descriptive statistics in SPSS to find the minimum and maximum values for each variable in order to scale the axes so that the lines would be comparable as you see in the graph below.
    • I then added trend lines to both y axes to simplify the visual representation of the data.
    • Lastly, I ran a two-tailed Pearson Correlation at a .01 significance in SPSS to determine whether there is a significant correlation between the dependent and independent variables. The result was significant.
  5. Conclusion: Was your hypothesis supported? Implications of what you have found.
    • The hypothesis is accepted. There is a significant correlation between Kindergarten vaccination rates and covid infection rates by county. As far as the possible implications, I will rely on this quote from Isaac Asimov, “There is a cult of ignorance in the United States, and there has always been. The strain of anti-intellectualism has been a constant thread winding its way through our political and cultural life, nurtured by the false notion that democracy means that ‘my ignorance is just as good as your knowledge.”

My Data Files

USP 515 Session 13 Notes

November 16th and 18th
Session Thirteen:  Addressing Environmental Injustices/Cost Benefit Analysis/Precautionary Principle

ASSIGNED READING FOR SESSION THIRTEEN (click on session 13 on left to access reading) 

 

  1. Pricing the Priceless (this is a legal article so you may have to review it several times

    • Cost-benefit analysis is a deeply flawed method that repeatedly leads to biased and misleading results
      • offers no clear advantages in making regulatory policy decisions and often produces inferior results, in terms of both environmental protection and overall social welfare, compared to other approaches
    • Proponents of cost-benefit analysis make two basic arguments in its favor.
      • First, use of cost-benefit analysis ostensibly leads to more “efficient” allocation of society’s resources by better identifying which potential regulatory actions are worth undertaking and in what fashion
      • Second, the use of discounting systematically and improperly downgrades the importance of environmental regulation.
      • Third, cost-benefit analysis ignores the question of who suffers as a result of environmental problems and, therefore, threatens to reinforce existing patterns of economic and social inequality.
      • Finally, cost-benefit analysis fails to produce the greater objectivity and transparency promised by its proponents
    • While economists have spent three decades wrangling about how much a human life, or a bald eagle, or a beautiful stretch of river, is worth in dollars, ecologists, engineers, and other specialists have gone about the business of saving lives and eagles and rivers, without waiting for formal, quantitative analysis proving that saving these things is worthwhile.
  2. The Precautionary Principle Puts Value First, Nancy Meyer
    • Professor definition: if the producer is not able to prove that no one will be harmed occurs in the process of their activity, then they may not proceed.
    • potential harm, scientific uncertainty, and precautionary action
    • The Wingspread Statement went on to define three additional components of the principle’s application: In this context the proponent of an activity, rather than the public, should bear the burden of proof. The process of applying the Precautionary Principle must be open, informed, and democratic and must include potentially affected parties. It must also involve an examination of the full range of alternatives, including no action

 

NO HOMEWORK

USP 514 Session 14 Notes

November 16th
Session Fourteen:  
Green New Deal 

REQUIRED READING FOR SESSION FOURTEEN

 

  1. Blueprint for Europe’s Just Transition – https://report.gndforeurope.com/
    • Austerity is not a solution to the climate collapse.
      • Progress is expensive. You can’t get progress with austerity.
    • Economic inequality is another major problem facing civilization.
    • Democracies are collapsing around the world as a result of the unaddressed economic and climate crises.
      • These three things are tied together and can only be addressed together.
    • Background Process
      • Get everyone on board with understanding gnd
      • Listen to stakeholders and incorporate their feedback to create “the just transition”
      • Bring everything together to form a comprehensive vision
      • Bring the plans to the institutions
        • This is where this document comes in
    • Transform financialized capitalism into something that supports rather than threatens our long-term interests with regard to justice, equity, etc.
      • America is the “vampire mothership
        • The private sector sucks the blood of the country like a parasite while also exterminating the population and destroying the ecology that sustains the extractive, productive, and consumptive activities which the vampire capitalism relies on
    • Class discussion:
      • Main demands
        • 3-day weekend/4-day work work
          • More jobs, less work
        • Democratize the economy and society across workplaces and communities
        • Fair wages
          • People should be able to afford to live if they are working
        • Local job creation, including rural areas
      • Guarantee a basic income for industries that are being phased out
      • Fund government procurement from sustainable GND manufacturers
      • Use the GPW to fund major buyback programs for vacant housing stock
      • Penalize non-renewable investments
  2. Green New Deal Report, Data for Progress – https://www.dataforprogress.org/green-new-deal-report
    • GND is necessary to meet the scale and urgency of environmental challenges facing America
    • GND can bring American job and economic opportunity
    • GND is popular among American citizens
    • GND can be environmentally just and distribute benefits equitably
    • GND is Financially feasible and necessary
  3. Creating a Road Map for a Green New Deal” – https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/creating-a-road-map-for-a-green-new-deal
    • AOC and others protested at the offices of Pelosi, demanding GND
    • Large scale projects are essential to resolve climate crisis
  4. “Can A Blue Wave Deliver A Green New Deal” – https://www.thenation.com/article/can-the-blue-wave-deliver-a-green-new-deal/
    • More coverage of the same AOC/Pelosi protest

 

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT FOR SESSION FIFTEEN

  1. Watch the video Clean and Resilient Recovery (1 hour 30 minutes) –https://www.wri.org/events/2020/07/webinar-building-clean-and-resilient-recovery-covid-19

    1. Answer the 5 questions below in writing and be prepared to discuss them in class:
  2. What are the main points raised in this video about Covid 19, the SDGs and Climate Change?
    • The historic economic paradigms are inefficient, polluting, and not resilient.
    • Alternatives exist as articulated by the UN SDGs.
    • The post-covid recovery can be clean and resilient.
  3. What similarities and differences are different nations facing?
    • Everyone faces economic collapse due both to covid and climate change
    • Everyone faces disasters like covid and will continue to face wider challenges as the collapse of the biosphere progresses
    • Different countries have different access to investment capital to implement change
    • Different countries face different short and long-term threats from climate change
  4. What are the main challenges addressed in this video?
    • Covid is just a sneak peek of the disasters that are coming as a result of the climate collapse
    • Most of the crises we are going to face in the near future are either directly or indirectly related to the ongoing collapse of the biosphere
  5. What solutions are presented?
    • UK
      • As we recover from covid and rebuild, we can make wiser decisions about the kind of future we want.
      • We need to use sustainability and resiliency as the lens through which to view the recovery and rebuilding post-covid.
      • Subsidize clean alternative vehicle and transportation designs
    • Bangladesh
      • Scale up early warning systems for extreme storms
        • These investments save 10x the cost in lives and property damage
      • Covid recovery needs to be durable and resilient
        • Investment must be guided by and directed through these principles
      • SDG alignment is key to a resilient recovery
      • Supply chains need to be circular
      • Wellbeing and inclusiveness as central goals is key to securing long-term prosperity in addition to durability and resiliency
    • Korea
      • Smart grids to distribute sustainable and renewable energy
      • GND officially endorsed by federal govt
        • We can not go on like it was before.
          • Short term recovery measures must be in line with out long-term ecological interests
        • Decarbonization
          • Green innovation
          • Job creation
        • Three main pillars
          • Eco-friendly and smart infrastructure
          • Low-carbon energy infrastructure
            • Increasing renewable power capacity
            • Phasing out coal and other non-sustainable power sources
              • Ten coal plants closed already with six more scheduled to close
          • Green manufacturing
      • Covid reveals how fragile the existing economic systems are. This should be taken as a warning, since the climate disaster is going to be so much worse than covid.
    • Nigeria
      • It is now cheaper to provide sustainable energy versus unsustainable energy
    • Rwanda
      • Significantly increased their ambitious plans for SDG progress
      • Established covid economic recovery fund
        • Based on climate resilience strategy and action plan
      • Investing in climate action can accelerate covid recovery
    • Jamaica
      • Committed to establish low-carbon economic recovery from covid
      • Sustainable investments in renewable energy sector
      • Climate finance needs to be more accessible and more available
  6. How do the SDGs fit into the solutions?
    • Countries can choose to double down on the polluting and inefficient economic strategies of the past or choose sustainable alternatives as articulated by the SDGs?

 

Videos 

  • The Green New Deal: Putting the climate at the heart of global policy – Jeremy Rifkin (9 minutes)
    • Animal and insect populations under threat around the world
    • Sea levels rising
    • Planet getting hotter because of fossil fuels
    • It’s not too late to change course
    • GND: Fossil fuel economy will collapse by 2028
      • GND is an aspirational document
      • Patterned after the new deal of the 1930s.
        • Roosevelt initiated massive programs to get people back to work
      • GND helps us move quickly out of a fossil fuel economy in order to avoid mass extinctions
        • We are on course to lose half the species on earth within the century.
    • Renewable solar energy is now cheaper than the other energy sources
      • This means a widespread economic collapse will happen in the energy sector because the capital invested in obsolete polluting energy sources is going to move to sustainable alternatives like solar
    • Every region and community needs to locally implement GND principles in order to move into the new era of sustainable energy production and consumption
    • Long-term equity (pension funds, sovereign wealth funds, etc.) moving out of bad bets on fossil fuels is a hugely powerful force for change.
    • Small sustainable pilot projects need to expand to huge widespread projects
      • This will allow long-term equity bets to move into these projects in a big way.
  • Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez Breaks Down What the Green New Deal Really Is (5 minutes)
    • A proposed resolution or vision statement about building a sustainable future through investments in better alternatives to the status quo
      • This would inspire separate legislation to address each of the smaller ideas.
    • Affordable housing
    • Homelessness
    • Free education for all

 

Class Discussion

  • Played video of spoken word poem
    • If the lifespan of the earth is a day then humans have existed for three seconds and in that time basically wrecked everything, destroyed the environment, and initiated an extermination of the population including ourselves.
  • GND is the first attempt to meet the scale of the challenges of the climate crisis
    • Justice, equity, jobs, etc
    • Advocates for large government investments in programs and projects to resolve the crisis
  • The long-term actuarial perspective of institutional capital from sources like pension funds can be a powerful force for change through green investments in renewable energy, sustainability, and resilience in the developing world.

USP 515 Session 12 Notes

November 9th
Session Twelve: Civil Rights

Part One of this session will focus on how voting rights restoration schemes deny the right to vote to those who cannot afford to pay legal debt. Part Two will focus on Prison Abolition.

 

ASSIGNED READING FOR SESSION TWELVE
Part One: Voting Rights/Disenfranchisement

  1. Can’t Pay/Can’t Vote 
    • Poll taxes, or taxes imposed on otherwise eligible voters as a condition of voting, were abolished across the country during the 1960s, with the ratification of the Twenty‑Fourth Amendment and the U.S. Supreme Court’s holding in Harper v. Virginia State Board of Education that wealth is not germane to voting
    • felony disenfranchisement statutes, mass incarceration, and the monetization of the carceral state have combined to create a modern-day equivalent to the poll tax—one that is imposed only on those individuals caught up in the criminal justice system
    • Nearly six million individuals are denied the right to vote in the United States due to a past conviction, and, for many of those individuals, the ability to vote is contingent upon their ability to pay an increasing number of fines, fees, court costs, and restitution
    • The surest way to eliminate the impact of wealth on access to the ballot for people with convictions is to abolish felony disenfranchisement.
    • Absent abolition, the most effective way to ensure that inability to pay does not preclude ability to vote is to restore voting rights automatically upon release from incarceration.
  2. Restoring Voting Rights for Felons: Case Study of Florida
    • Amendment 4 was approved by 65 percent of Florida voters and “automatically” restores voting rights for convicted felons if they have completed their sentences, fulfilled probation requirements and paid any restitution and court costs. The amendment excludes murders and felony sex offenders but is expected to enfranchise 1.4 million people
  3. Depriving “Felons” of their Right to Vote
    • A group of voting rights advocates and felons has filed a lawsuit after Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis approved a law that could make it more difficult for felons to vote.
    • The amendment approved by voters said that “voting rights shall be restored upon completion of all terms of sentence including parole or probation.” It excludes those who have been convicted of murder or felony sexual offense.

 

ASSIGNED READING FOR SESSION ELEVEN
Part One: Prison Abolition

Also recommended readings by Mariame Kaba

 

Videos

USP 514 Session 13 Notes

November 9th 
Session Thirteen: Cost Benefit Analysis and Precautionary Principle 

REQUIRED READING FOR SESSION THIRTEEN (click on Session 13 on left side to access reading)

 

  1. Pricing the Priceless (this is a legal article so you may have to review it several times

    • Cost-benefit analysis is a deeply flawed method that repeatedly leads to biased and misleading results
      • offers no clear advantages in making regulatory policy decisions and often produces inferior results, in terms of both environmental protection and overall social welfare, compared to other approaches
    • Proponents of cost-benefit analysis make two basic arguments in its favor.
      • First, use of cost-benefit analysis ostensibly leads to more “efficient” allocation of society’s resources by better identifying which potential regulatory actions are worth undertaking and in what fashion
      • Second, the use of discounting systematically and improperly downgrades the importance of environmental regulation.
      • Third, cost-benefit analysis ignores the question of who suffers as a result of environmental problems and, therefore, threatens to reinforce existing patterns of economic and social inequality.
      • Finally, cost-benefit analysis fails to produce the greater objectivity and transparency promised by its proponents
    • While economists have spent three decades wrangling about how much a human life, or a bald eagle, or a beautiful stretch of river, is worth in dollars, ecologists, engineers, and other specialists have gone about the business of saving lives and eagles and rivers, without waiting for formal, quantitative analysis proving that saving these things is worthwhile.
  2. The Precautionary Principle Puts Value First, Nancy Meyer
    • Professor definition: if the producer is not able to prove that no one will be harmed occurs in the process of their activity, then they may not proceed.
    • potential harm, scientific uncertainty, and precautionary action
    • The Wingspread Statement went on to define three additional components of the principle’s application: In this context the proponent of an activity, rather than the public, should bear the burden of proof. The process of applying the Precautionary Principle must be open, informed, and democratic and must include potentially affected parties. It must also involve an examination of the full range of alternatives, including no action

 

Group Discussion

  • Cost benefit analysis
    • Define cost benefit analysis
      • A method/methodology for making decisions by weighing pros and cons, strengths and benefits, strengths and weaknesses but always prioritizes the economic considerations beyond all other considerations.
        • In fact, cost-benefit analysis is incapable of delivering what it promises. First, cost-benefit analysis cannot produce more efficient decisions because the process of reducing life, health, and the natural world to monetary values is inherently flawed
      • Cost-benefit analysis tries to mimic a basic function of markets by setting an economic standard for measuring the success of the government’s projects and programs. That is, cost-benefit analysis seeks to perform, for public policy, a calculation that markets perform for the private sector.
      • An attempt to attach a price to solving a social or environmental problems.
      • Good
        • Homelessness: it’s much cheaper to give them houses instead of leaving them on the street.
        • Domestic violence: it’s much cheaper to give them housing so they can split up instead of leaving them together.
      • Bad
        • We can’t always know the costs and benefits. For example what is the future value of an acre of rainforest and how do we weigh it against the alternative developments that could happen there
        • Utilitarianism debunked
          • Different groups value costs and benefits differently, so they can’t necessarily balance the costs and benefits across identities.
          • Dangerous lead levels change to accommodate whatever the lead levels are so that no one has to do anything about them.
        • Wind is expensive to set up, but better in the long-term there are huge advantages over the alternatives
        • Difficult to see a profit motive for solving covid
          • It may be that only the wealthy will get the vaccine and the treatments
        • The failures of cost benefit analyses are often based on the failure of capitalism to solve problems that don’t have a clear profit motive or clearly quantifiable costs and benefits.
    • Discuss problems and benefits with cost benefit
      • If it was cheaper to solve problem instead of not solving problems, then why would there be any problems?
      • Using cost as a measure of harm does not account for all the ways that harms happen.
      • Actuarial perspective
      • reinforce existing patterns of economic and social inequality
      • We can’t really know all the costs in many cases
  • Professor said we should be thinking conceptually rather than theoretically or practically
  • The concepts we are talking about today are competing methodologies for decision making
  • Precautionary principle: designed to address the problems of cost-benefit analysis from the opposite perspective
    • Accepts risk as a natural, unavoidable part of decision making
      • If we don’t remove the contaminated soil and kids get sick, that’s the cost of doing nothing
      • If we fight a war for oil, the cost is the lives of soldiers, chaos in developing nations, etc
    • Potential harm
    • Scientific uncertainty
    • Precautionary action

November 11th – NO CLASS VETERANS DAY

USP 515 Section 11 Notes

November 2nd and 4th
Session Eleven: 
Transportation Justice: Case Study of Curitiba, Brazil 

This session will focus on inequities and injustices in the transportation sector. We will be guided by the following questions:

  1. What are the adverse social consequences of transportation injustice?
  2. What policies can be introduced and supported to promote transportation equity and justice?

 

ASSIGNED READINGS FOR SESSION TEn

  1. Rabinovitch, UNDP,sustainable transportation planning in Brazil – working paper #19, 1995 
    • Curitiba was established in the 17th century
    • During the second half of the twentieth century, the population exploded
    • New master plan created in 1964
      • decongestion of the central area
      • preservation of the historic center
      • demographic management
      • economic support to urban development
      • infrastructure improvement
      • changing the radial urban growth to a linear urban growth
    • Objectives
      • Encourage economic development by reducing the cost of mobility, trade, and exchange within the city
      • Reduce the indirect costs of other infrastructure improvements such as water, sewage, electricity, and communications
      • Assist in preserving historic buildings and areas within the city center
    • Land use legislation
      • Structural sectors: divide the city into five main linear growth structures
      • Ban new commercial buildings in the city center and incentivize housing development
      • Ban cars, parking, and supermarkets in congested areas
      • Ban high rise construction above five stories
      • Ban banks and other financial institutions from the ground floors.
      • preserve historical buildings
      • Designate “connecting roads” off the five axes and incentivize transit oriented development, green spaces, and infrastructure installation
      • Designate “collecting roads” off the “connecting roads” off the five “linear growth structures”
      • Preserve river basins and design for flood protection
        • Ban industrial construction in these areas
      • Enforcement
        • Regulatory and planning tools
        • Economic incentives
        • Physical instruments (ie bike paths)
        • Informational tools
      • Impact of land use/ transportation system
        • Environmental and quality of life impacts
        • Housing densities and land use
        • Public transit
        • Pedestrian areas
        • Traffic and circulation
        • Overall impacts of the land use and transport system
  2. how radical ideas turned Curitiba into Brazil’s ‘green capital’
    • Brasilia was redesigned as a bird in flight with radial corridors of transit wings, and administrative offices in the brain.
    • Curitiba decided instead to protect historic buildings while adding transit in a way that helped the city improve without fundamentally changing
    • To get around opposition to bans on cars by incumbent institutions including commercial shops in the area, Curitiba completed projects very rapidly, permanently blocking streets overnight in order to prevent petitions and injunctions by the business owners.
    • “Democracy is not consensus. Democracy is a conflict that is well managed.”
  3. Shifting people out of cars Curitiba, Brazil’s transport and zoning policies
    • Curitiba invents brt
    • Brt spreads around the world
    • Master plan integrates urban planning with transit
    • Good quality mass transit system
      • Extensive network of routes
      • A single unified fare system
      • Quality infrastructure
        • Busses
        • Stops
      • Support for social welfare systems
    • Today about 85% of the Curitiba population uses the bus system
    • Curitiba’s BRT is financially self-sufficient, requiring no government funding
    • Leadership has always had a clear vision
    • Initial financial support was enough to establish a self-sufficient system
    • Mixed public/private roles with clear division of responsibilities
    • Quality assurance is done by the government

 

Other Notes

  • Abolition is the system of the act of abolishing a system or an institution
  • Police abolition
    • Who gets to define deviance
    • Who gets to define crime
    • Who gets to decide punishments
  • Abolition is a vision of what we are for rather than what we are against
  • The central roles of policing are
    • Surveil
    • Frighten/ Intimidate/ Terrorize
    • Deter
    • Capture
    • Harm/ Kill
  • The cure for social problems is social programs
  • The cause of crime is poverty
  • How would we respond to deviance
  • Abolition movement in America dates back to before the civil war
    • Slave catchers
    • Sheriffs/ convict lease
  • 92% of the people incarcerated have never been convicted of a crime
    • Plea bargain: admitted to a crime in exchange for some lesser sentence.

USP 514 Session 12 Notes

November 2nd and 4th  
Session Twelve: Sustainable Urban Energy Management

 

This session will focus on the approaches, policies, and practices we can promote sustainable energy management and use. The discussion will be guided by the following questions:

  1. What are the major characteristics of energy?
    • Energy: the ability to do work
    • Energy sources
      • Human energy – both within and without the body
      • Animal energy – both within and without the body
      • Fossil fuels: remains of organic material that has died and been buried under pressure for millions of years.
        • Petroleum: mostly used for transportation
        • Coal: mostly used outside transportation
        • Gas: mostly used outside transportation
      • Hydro/ Hydroelectric
      • Nuclear
        • Fission
        • Fusion
      • Solar
        • Thermal
        • Voltaic
      • Wind
      • Plants
        • Bioremediation
        • Biomass
        • Biogas
      • Geothermal
      • Tidal power
    • Embodied energy: all the energy involved in doing work (cradle to cradle)
    • In the pre-industrial period, biomass was a main source of energy for the world
      • Cooking
      • Heating
      • Transportation
      • Manufacturing
      • Extractive activities, consumptive activities, waste activities
    • Why did fossil fuels become popular?
      • Fossil fuels are reliable
        • Biomass burns at unpredictable temperatures
        • Hydro is also unpredictable as a direct energy source
        • Huge government subsidies
      • Fossil fuels are profitable
      • Example of glass blowers in Moreno in 14th century Venice switching from biomass to coal and doing more work but creating more pollution.
    • Coal is transported by rail
  2. What energy sources are used to provide energy in cities?
    • Petroleum for transportation
    • Fossil fuels like gas and biomass for heat
    • Some solar and wind
  3. What do we mean by the concept “renewable energy”?
  4. What energy systems and technologies are considered “renewable” and why are they considered renewable?
    • Wind
    • Solar
    • Hydroelectric
    • These are considered to be renewable because the externalities are largely priced in, and the sources work for a long time without producing additional harms once they are in place.
  5. What economic and social policies would need to be implemented to promote widespread use of renewable energy?
    • Government subsidies need to change to support renewable energy instead of non-renewable energy
    • Political support for corporate accountability
    • Infrastructure
    • Research and development
    • Trade policies to support materials and manufacturing related to the production of renewable energy sources
    • Reduce consumption and increase efficiency
  6. Which countries are at the forefront of using renewable energy; what can we learn from these countries?
    • Norway, France, Denmark, China, Iceland, Germany, Holland, Sweden
    • We should install renewable sources and use policies that encourage renewable energy consumption in transportation, manufacturing, and other energy consumption sectors
  7. How can professionals promote sustainable energy management and use?
    • Transitioning to renewables can have a harmful impact
      • Our consumption is very high, while many developing nations have very low consumption. We need both groups to move towards a more sustainable central level of consumption. So developing nations need to consume more in order to reach a parity of living conditions while developed nations need to consume less.
      • Infrastructure investments for developing nations to help them skip ahead and adopt better alternatives to fossil fuel energy sources
    • Job training
      • For example for workers to stop working on coal and start working on solar

 

Other Notes

  • The global south is largely not electrified
  • In non-electrified areas, open fires use biomass for cooking, heat, manufacturing
    • The smoke people are exposed to can be equivalent to six packs of cigarettes per day
      • Respiratory diseases are a far more serious threat because of this
  • Around the world, the industrialization of developing nations has given wealth benefits to the elites and health harms to the common people
  • Infrastructure is often funded by international banks
    • Bonds are a good alternative funding source for infrastructure which allows them to avoid the political and economic interference from the international banking system

 

REQUIRED READING FOR SESSION TWELVE

(click on Session 12 on left side to access reading)

  1. Alternative Urban Futures: Chapter Three
    • Energy
      • World Energy Mix
    • Environmental and Social Impacts of Fossil Fuel Dependency
      • Coal
      • Indigenous Perspectives of Drilling for Oil on Native Land
      • The Fossil Fuel Regime
    • Green Building and Design
      • Appropriate Technologies
        • Energy Efficiency
          • Energy efficient lighting
          • Energy efficient appliances
          • Occupancy sensors
          • Heat efficiency
          • Daylighting
        • Heating and Ventilation
          • Insulation
          • Programmable thermostats
          • Proper ventilation
        • Solar
          • Solar hot water heating pumps
          • Photovoltaic systems
          • Passive solar heating
        • Water
          • Rainwater catchment systems
          • Gray water recovery systems
          • Indoor water conservation
        • Landscaping
          • Xeriscaping
          • Landscaping for energy conservation
          • Pervious material
        • Reduce, reuse, recycle
        • Reused materials
        • Lumber
        • Recycling wastes
        • Local manufacturing
        • Compost systems
      • Improving household biomass systems
    • Renewable energy
      • Wind energy
      • Solar photovoltaic
      • Solar thermal

USP 515 Session 10 Notes

October 26th and 28th
Session Ten: Climate Justice 

We will focus on the questions below:  

  1. What do we mean by the term “climate gap”?
    • The climate gap means that communities of color and the poor will suffer more during extreme heat waves.
    • The climate gap means that communities of color and the poor will breathe even dirtier air
    • The climate gap means that communities of color and the poor will pay more for basic necessities
    • The climate gap is likely to mean fewer job opportunities for communities of color and the poor.
  2. What are the key ideas in the Climate Gap Report?
    • There is a climate gap
      • Definitions and examples given above
    • Recommendations given below
  3. What are the key findings in the Climate Gap Report?
    • Extreme Heat Leads to Increased Illnesses and Deaths—Particularly Among the Elderly, Infants and African Americans
    • Risk Factors for Heat-Related Illness and Death Are Higher for Low-Income Neighborhoods and People of Color
    • African Americans in Los Angeles Nearly Twice as Likely to Die from a Heat Wave
    • Agricultural and Construction Workers also at Increased Risk of Death
    • Air Conditioning a Critical Coping Tool for Heat-Waves—but Not Everyone Has Access
    • Transportation Is also a Critical Coping Tool During a Heat Wave—but African Americans, Latinos and Asians Less Likely to have Access to a Car
    • a recent study found that for each 1 degree Celsius (1°C) rise in temperature in the United States, there are an estimated 20–30 excess cancer cases, as well as approximately 1000 (CI: 350–1800) excess air-pollution-associated deaths (Jacobson 2008). About 40 percent of the additional deaths may be due to ozone and the rest to particulate matter annually (Jacobson 2008; Bailey et al. 2008).
    • Prices for Basic Necessities Expected to Skyrocket as a Result of Climate Change
    • Low-Income Families Already Spend a Bigger Proportion of Their Income on Food, Energy and Other Household Needs Than Higher-Income Families. With Climate Change, That Spending Gap Will Grow.
    • Climate Change Will Dramatically Reduce Job Opportunities or Cause Major Employment Shifts in Sectors that Predominately Employ Low-Income People of Color.
    • Fewer Jobs in Tourism, an Industry Employing a High Number of Low-Income People of Color
  4. What are the key recommendations in the Climate Gap Report?
    • Maximizing Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Toxic Air Pollution in Neighborhoods with the Dirtiest Air.
    • Ensuring New Fuels Don’t Increase Pollution in Low-Income and Minority Communities
    • Close the Health Impacts Gap Between People of Color and the Poor, and the Rest of the Population.
      • Focus Planning and Intervention in Poor and Minority Neighborhoods.
      • Use New Mapping Technologies to Identify Vulnerable Neighborhoods
      • Research the Potential Benefits and Harms of New Fuels
      • Measure the Success of Mitigation Strategies by Whether They Protect Everyone
      • Design Research That Identifies Opportunities for Targeting Greenhouse Gas Reductions to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions in Highly Polluted Neighborhoods
    • Class Discussion
      • Close the climate gap by auctioning permits or establishing a fee and invest revenue in communities that will be hardest hit
      • Close the climate gap by coordinating reductions in greenhouse gas emissions with opportunities to reduce toxic pollutants in neighborhoods with the dirtiest air
      • Close the climate gap by adopting policies that will lessen the climate related health impacts faced by people of color and the poor
      • Close the climate gap by closing the conversation gap
  5. What can we learn from a case study of Malawi? (Sovacool’s article)
    • as a result of historical greenhouse gas emissions, people in rich countries impose 200–300 times more climate-related health damage on others than they experience themselves
    • Malawi, arguably “the most climate vulnerable mainland country in Africa” with a history of flooding, drought, land degradation, poverty and food insecurity. Barrett essentially maintains that rich nations should help a country like Malawi adapt to the impacts of climate change, but he takes the issue further to ask: which adaptation mechanisms, funded by international donors but implemented by community groups and stakeholders, would work the best?
      • no single adaptation measure will be sufficient to bolster Malawi’s adaptive capacity and resilience. Instead, much like the nature of the climate change threat, the country will need a suite of measures that cut across sectors. These include enhanced irrigation, drought cropping, flood protection, early warning systems, tree planting, conservation farming and fertilizer distribution. Also, specific cost–benefit ratios for individual adaptation instruments will change on the basis of their location as well as their timing
    • rich nations should help a country like Malawi adapt to the impacts of climate change, but he takes the issue further to ask: which adaptation mechanisms, funded by international donors but implemented by community groups and stakeholders, would work the best?
      1. villagers identified hunger, poverty and flooding as primary concerns, in contrast with the country’s National Adaptation Plan of Action, which prioritizes strategies such as early warning systems, afforestation and aquaculture
      2. no single adaptation measure will be sufficient to bolster Malawi’s adaptive capacity and resilience. Instead, much like the nature of the climate change threat, the country will need a suite of measures that cut across sectors. These include enhanced irrigation, drought cropping, flood protection, early warning systems, tree planting, conservation farming and fertilizer distribution. Also, specific cost–benefit ratios for individual adaptation instruments will change on the basis of their location as well as their timing
      3. adaptation approaches must be multiscalar — they cannot be implemented only by global actors. Much climate research has focused on the global or national level, given that climate change is a global phenomenon, and sovereign nations are deemed responsible for their emissions under the Kyoto Protocol
      4. most important, Barrett shows that the difference between ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ adaptation can concern whether it involved communities and respected their livelihoods or whether it was implemented by experts and failed to contribute to a reduction in community vulnerability. A similar line of research distinguishes between ‘soft’ adaptation pathways, which place the needs of a community equal to or above the priorities of adaptation, and the ‘hard’ pathways that place adaptation priorities first and require community sacrifices

 

ASSIGNED READING FOR SESSION TWELVE 

(click on session 12 on left to access reading) 

  1. Five Ways to make the Climate Movement Less White
    https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/sep/21/five-ways-to-make-the-climate-movement-less-white

    1. build intergenerational power
    2. require white organizers to confront their internalized white supremacy
    3. conversation, understanding and acknowledgement of those peoples who are doing the work that don’t look like the cookie cutter activist
    4. acknowledge the history, practices and policies that created the inequality
    5. provide accessible environmental education that comes from nonacademic ways of learning
  2. The Climate Gap: Inequalities in How Climate Change Hurts Americans — Morrello-Frosch, Pastor, et al
    • Extreme Heat Leads to Increased Illnesses and Deaths—Particularly Among the Elderly, Infants and African Americans
    • Risk Factors for Heat-Related Illness and Death Are Higher for Low-Income Neighborhoods and People of Color
    • African Americans in Los Angeles Nearly Twice as Likely to Die from a Heat Wave
    • Agricultural and Construction Workers also at Increased Risk of Death
    • Air Conditioning a Critical Coping Tool for Heat-Waves—but Not Everyone Has Access
    • Transportation Is also a Critical Coping Tool During a Heat Wave—but African Americans, Latinos and Asians Less Likely to have Access to a Car
    • a recent study found that for each 1 degree Celsius (1°C) rise in temperature in the United States, there are an estimated 20–30 excess cancer cases, as well as approximately 1000 (CI: 350–1800) excess air-pollution-associated deaths (Jacobson 2008). About 40 percent of the additional deaths may be due to ozone and the rest to particulate matter annually (Jacobson 2008; Bailey et al. 2008).
    • Prices for Basic Necessities Expected to Skyrocket as a Result of Climate Change
    • Low-Income Families Already Spend a Bigger Proportion of Their Income on Food, Energy and Other Household Needs Than Higher-Income Families. With Climate Change, That Spending Gap Will Grow.
    • Climate Change Will Dramatically Reduce Job Opportunities or Cause Major Employment Shifts in Sectors that Predominately Employ Low-Income People of Color.
    • Fewer Jobs in Tourism, an Industry Employing a High Number of Low-Income People of Color
    • Key Recommendations to Close the Climate Gap
      • Maximizing Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Toxic Air Pollution in Neighborhoods with the Dirtiest Air.
      • Ensuring New Fuels Don’t Increase Pollution in Low-Income and Minority Communities
      • Close the Health Impacts Gap Between People of Color and the Poor, and the Rest of the Population.
        • Focus Planning and Intervention in Poor and Minority Neighborhoods.
        • Use New Mapping Technologies to Identify Vulnerable Neighborhoods
        • Research the Potential Benefits and Harms of New Fuels
        • Measure the Success of Mitigation Strategies by Whether They Protect Everyone
        • Design Research That Identifies Opportunities for Targeting Greenhouse Gas Reductions to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions in Highly Polluted Neighborhoods
      • Develop Policies that Close the Gap Between the Economic Disparities Faced by People of Color and the Poor, and the Rest of the Population
      • Close the Conversation Gap
  3. The complexity of Climate Justice — Sovacool
    • as a result of historical greenhouse gas emissions, people in rich countries impose 200–300 times more climate-related health damage on others than they experience themselves
    • Malawi, arguably “the most climate vulnerable mainland country in Africa” with a history of flooding, drought, land degradation, poverty and food insecurity. Barrett essentially maintains that rich nations should help a country like Malawi adapt to the impacts of climate change, but he takes the issue further to ask: which adaptation mechanisms, funded by international donors but implemented by community groups and stakeholders, would work the best?
      • no single adaptation measure will be sufficient to bolster Malawi’s adaptive capacity and resilience. Instead, much like the nature of the climate change threat, the country will need a suite of measures that cut across sectors. These include enhanced irrigation, drought cropping, flood protection, early warning systems, tree planting, conservation farming and fertilizer distribution. Also, specific cost–benefit ratios for individual adaptation instruments will change on the basis of their location as well as their timing

 

Videos 

  • Causes and Effects of Climate Change ( 3 min)
    • Greenhouse effect is the main cause by trapping heat in the atmosphere
    • Human activities have dramatically increased the levels of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere
    • Ice sheets are melting
      • Sea levels rise
    • Weather is more extreme
    • Urban areas trap and increase smog
      • This causes asthma, heart disease, lung cancer, and other diseases
    • Switching to renewable energy sources would slow down this process and decrease the most severe side effects of climate change
  • Climate and Environmental Justice (2 min)
    • Movements around the world are rising up to oppose harms to their communities being perpetrated by businesses and capitalism
  • Climate Change is a Social Justice Issue | Adriana Laurent | TEDxUBC (15 min)
    • Climate justice is the intersection between social justice and climate change
    • Marginalized communities are disproportionately affected by climate change
    • Wealthy, privileged, low-risk countries are the ones most responsible for the damage to the climate
    • Countries who bear the biggest burden of climate change are those countries least responsible for climate change

USP 514 Session 11 Notes

October 26th and 28th 
 Session Eleven: Sustainable Urban Transportation Management
This session will examine a range of issues critical to sustainable urban transportation. We will examine case studies of Curitiba, Brazil and Bogata, Columbia transportation systems. We will be guided by the following questions.

  1. What are basic characteristics of urban transportation systems?
    • Mobility
    • Some relationships are backwards of what might seem intuitive
      • More industrialized countries often have less transit options
      • Less industrialized countries often have more transit options
      • More industrialized countries are more responsible for climate change while being less impacted by climate change
      • Less industrialized countries are less responsible for climate change while bearing a greater share of the impact
    • Transportation is the movement of people, goods, and services.
    • Modes
      • Biking
      • Walking
      • Busses
      • Trains
      • Cars
      • Light rails
      • Animals: horses, donkeys, oxen, camels, elephants, dogs, llamas
      • Airplanes
    •  Sustainable
      • Busses
      • Trains
      • Light rail
    • Unsustainable
      • Cars
      • Airplanes
    • Good transportation is:
      • Affordable
      • Sustainable
      • Efficient
      • Accessible
      • Safety
      • Reliable
      • Clean
      • Convenient
      • Connected
      • Working conditions for workers should be good
    • US transportation systems are:
      • Mixed ownership public/private
      • Car centered
      • Unsafe
      • Polluting
      • Fossil fuel dominated
      • Unreliable
      • Disconnected
      • Inefficient
    • Transit: the movement of people
      • Busses, trains, light rail can carry more people than cars in the same space
      • Working conditions for workers should be good
    • Why do people use cars
      • Mobility
      • Accessibility
      • More control and autonomy
        • Destination
        • Music
        • Temperature
      • Perception that it’s faster
      • Perception that it’s cheaper
    • Transit needs to compete with these features
  2. What are the environmental and social impacts of fossil fuel dependency in the transit sector?
  3. Are all social groups affected equally?
  4. What can be done to reduce reliance on fossil fuels in the transit sector?
  5. How can mass transit, bicycling, and walking be promoted in urban transit systems?
  6. How can transportation professionals promote sustainable transportation policies and practices?
    • brt vs rail
    • alleged limitations of progressive ticket pricing
  7.  Transit oriented development
    • people use cars less because land use is planned so that housing and work are located near transit
    • Fruitvale is the best example in the bay
    • High density mixed use adjacent to transit
    • BRT came in to make it even better
  8. What does “connectivity” look like?
    • It’s more important to connect people to where they need to go rather than just connecting modalities and hoping people can get where they need to go
  9. How are transportation projects envisioned, funded, and developed in us compared to Western Europe, Japan, S Korea, others
    • In the past, people were working closer to where they worked.
    • Many large cities had widespread excellent transit systems
    • Federal policy and the tire industry have historically worked to dismantle the transit systems and forced people into cars
    • 80% of american transportation spending goes to car infrastructure
    • 20% of american transportation spending goes to transit infrastructure
    • Most developed countries have the opposite mix
    • Transportation projects are envisioned, funded, and developed in the us to advance the power of the car at the expense of walking, biking, and transit.
    • Strong-mayor acts prevented cars from entering business districts in curitiba by installing barriers overnight and occupying streets with children to prevent cars from driving through
      • Similar things happening in the Castro
  10. How do we move people out of cars and onto transit
    • brt vs rail
    • alleged limitations of progressive ticket pricing
    • ride apps are displacing transit to destinations like the airports
    • pricing is important but it’s not the primary factor people are paying attention to when they decide whether to use transit
    • Policies are successful based on incentives or penalties
      • Incentives
        • Reliability
        • Safety
        • Accessibility
        • Quality of ride
        • Incentives from workplaces, institutions
        • Alternatives to the car
      • Penalties
        • Cost of owning and using a car
        • Cost of parking
        • Fines and fees are high
        • Gas prices are high in most of the developed world outside of the us
  11. What are the implications of people working from home on transit?
    • More drivers
    • Transit systems in crisis

 

REQUIRED READING FOR SESSION ELEVEN (click on Session 11 on left side to access reading)

  • Alternative Urban Futures: Chapter Four
    • Transportation
      • Transportation patterns in developing countries
      • Transportation patterns in industrialized countries
    • Environmental and social impacts of automobile dependency
      • How the transportation infrastructure promotes and supports automobile use
      • Problems with automobile sustainability
    • Sustainable urban transportation planning
      • Increasing mass transit options and mass transit ridership
        • Mass transit in developing countries
      • Increasing the role of bicycles
        • Planning to increase bicycle use in Japanese cities
        • Planning to increase bicycle use in Western European cities
        • Increasing the role of workbikes and bicycle rickshaws
          • Cycle rickshaws
      • Creating pedestrian-friendly infrastructures
      • Alternative automotive systems, fuels, and designs
        • Alternative ownership
        • Alternative fuel vehicles and energy sources
        • Alternative vehicle designs
  • Vast New Bay Area Bike-Share Program Is Everywhere … Except Deep East OaklandAshley Wong, East Bay Express July 15, 2017 https://www.eastbayexpress.com/oakland/new-bay-area-bike-share-program-is-everywhere-except-deep-east-oakland/Content?oid=7991195
    • Bike share programs extend throughout the bay area
      • They are not present in East Oakland.
    • They say it’s because of a lack of proximity to transit, jobs, and services.
    • There is a history of equity problems for bike share programs in the area

 

Videos

Curitiba Rapid Bus System
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JOux6tNEqMo (14 minutes)

    • Discussion
      • Functions more like a rail system than a bus system
      • Transit is used to address issues of social inequality
      • Affordable, progressive pricing with priority given to the poor
      • External land use design
    • Installed a 100% bus public transit system
      • Stops every 400 meters
      • BRT arterials
        • Fares are paid before passengers board busses
          • Busses only stop for an average of 15-19 seconds
    • There are plans to install a future subway arterial line
    • 80% of travelers use the bus system
      • 70% of commuters
    • Bus fare is the same no matter how far you have to travel
    • Busses have special lanes so they avoid traffic
    • Land use policies require increasing density along brt lines rather than sprawling out

Streetfilms-BRT Transmilenio (Bogotá, Colombia)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRGoketbIZE (7 minutes)

    • Just a description of what BRT is
      • Elevated stations where busses pull up
      • People have already paid before they get on the platform so they just walk in and the bus leaves.
      • BRT busses have special lanes

How to use Transmilenio, the massive transport system in Bogotá? RCN news in English´s video (3 minutes) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=–seUQXyfLE

    • This person explains how to take a bus by buying a ticket, reading the signs, and taking the correct bus
    • There is also a transfer to another bus
    • There are plans to eventually add subway and lightrail

E2. (2007). Bogota: Building a Sustainable City. (25:45) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IjhMQM8eaVY

We already watched this video in this same class and answered questions about it so I’ll just paste that here;

    • What are the main themes in this video?
      • Rapid unplanned urban growth leads to social problems
      • Adding population without adding infrastructure and planning to support the additional population will result in a lower quality of life and an increase in social problems in the city.
      • Reclaiming public space
    • What were the major issues raised in this video?
      • If you don’t plan your city, it will not be a good city for people.
      • Transpiration and transit
      • Giving public spaces like sidewalks back to people instead of cars
      • Giving water, sewage, and health to the extremely poor before giving it to car culture for the rich.
    • What strategies were used to address urban problems in Bogata?
      • Planning
      • Sustainable urban design as a foundation for social justice
      • The planners used tactics like color and diction to make the new bus system “sexy.”
        • They tried to get people to say they are “taking the trans-millenial” rather than “taking the bus.”
      • Smaller trunk lines feed the main lines so allow a larger area to access the bus system
      • Satellite connections between buses means the system can be efficiently managed to meet its maximum capacity, redirecting resources where they are needed most in real time.
      • Getting cars off the sidewalks was initially a controversial position
      • They built a pedestrian road through the poorest parts of the city with sewage and water pipes underneath, displacing open sewers with new healthy spaces for people to move through the city.
        • The longest pedestrian road in Latin America
        • This connects the transit systems and the schools and libraries to the people, becoming a cultural commentary and statement about the priorities of the city
        • There was a huge shift in social problems after this was built, with the most dangerous parts of the city becoming safe, and social problems going away.
    • Why does Mayor Penolosa of Bogata believe that sustainable urban design a foundation for social justice?
      • (3:15-5:20) He seemed to argue for broken windows theory; that people will decide what kind of life to have based on their surroundings, and so eliminating the negative cues about the kind of neighborhoods you have will cause people to choose to live in a better way. He said this gave people more self esteem which solved urban social problems.
      • He riffed for a while and seemed to argue that living in America inspired him to believe that a lassaiz-faire capitalism will eventually solve many social problems. He specifically argued that socialism is bad in contrast on this point.
      • He specifically claims (6:30) that restricting car use on some roads during certain times and allowing bikes to use the roads instead is “the seed” of social progress towards the new Bogota.
      • If you spend all your money building freeways then you have no money left for parks and schools
      • If you have a limited amount of money, it can’t all go to car culture which benefits only a few
    • What did you learn from this video?
      • The bus system was previously a mafia business in Bogota, and later became a city program.
        • The new system was based on the Curitiba bus system: “The best bus system in the world.”
      • It was interesting to hear his Penolosa’s thoughts on the idea of restricting cars being the seed of sustainable urban development.

USP 514 Session 10 Notes

October 19th and 21st
Session Ten: Sustainable Urban Waste Management

This session will focus on the approaches, policies, and practices that can promote sustainable waste management and resource recovery. We will be guided by the following questions.

Waste is unwanted material intentionally thrown away for disposal.

  1. What are the basic characteristics of waste as it relates to urban waste management issues?
    • Solid vs liquid
    • Organic vs inorganic
    • Human activities
      • Agriculture, husbandry
      • Energy sources
      • Water collection and use
      • Building shelters and buildings
      • Making tools and other objects for cultural, industrial and spiritual reasons
      • Conflict and warfare
    • Production of products with toxic materials
  2. What waste management systems and technologies have been developed by planners in the “industrialized world”?
    • Landfills
    • Recycling
    • Composting
  3. What are the environmental and social impacts of these waste management systems and technologies?
    • The waste stream has become much more toxic
    • Accumulation of toxics in the waste stream
      • Toxins like dioxin are now in the breast milk of every woman on earth.
    • Accumulation of inorganic material in the waste stream
  4. What alternative systems and technologies can be put into place? 
    • We have to move from a waste management approach to a resource recovery approach. (“Because approach is the highest level”)
      • Composting: 40% of the waste in landfills is food waste
      • Ashes
      • Cans and bottles
      • Electronics recycling
      • Thrift stores
    • Cradle to grave vs cradle to cradle
    • RRRR: Reduce, reuse, recycle, rot
    • Up-cycling, down-cycling
  5. How viable are these alternatives?
    • These alternatives are extremely viable
    • They are used throughout Europe
  6. How can waste management professionals promote sustainable waste management and use?

 

REQUIRED READING FOR SESSION TEN (click on Session 10 on left side to access reading)

  1. Alternative Urban Futures: Chapter Two
    • Solid waste
    • Environmental and social aspects of conventional solid waste disposal approaches
      • Open pit dumping and burning
      • Landfills
      • Sanitary landfills
      • Incineration
    • Sustainable solid waste management and planning
      • Creating a sustainable materials economy
      • Materials management and resource recognition
        • Pollution prevention and producer responsibility
      • Waste disposal taxes and refund deposit strategies
      • Subsidies and incentives
      • Reprocessing/ Materials exchange
      • Household and small business waste reduction and recycling
      • Household waste collection in informal settlements
      • Individual recycled material collectors
    • A cautionary word about recycling
      • Reducing organic waste accumulation: composting

 

Videos/Radio 

  1. Story of Stuff – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9GorqroigqM
    • Resource economy is a linear process with many open loops, therefore not sustainable.
    • 1/3 of our initial natural resources are now gone.
    • Less than 4% of natural forests remain in the US.
    • 5% of the word’s population lives in the US
      • US uses 30% of the world’s resources
      • US creates 30% of the world’s waste
    • 80% of the planets forests are now gone
    • 75% of fisheries are fished over their capacity
    • Distribution: Keep price down, keep people buying, keep inventory moving
    • Externalized cost: the real cost are not how much we buy it. people in extraction use their natural resources to pay
    • Consumption(golden key.) they have designed to make consumers buy more
      • Planned obsolescence: products designed to fail so you have to buy a new one
      • Perceived obsolescence: New products designed to look new; creating social pressure for others to buy new things
      • Extraction, Production, Distribution all work for this
    • National happiness is going down while consumption is going up
    • We have less leisure time than at any point since feudal society
    • Disposal: They burn the garbage you make and pollute to the air
    • Recycling is good
      • Reduces waste and reduces inputs
      • Much of the garbage can’t be recycled because it’s toxic or it’s designed to be impossible to recycle (ie tetra-packs)
    • One can of trash in front of your house means 71 cans of trash upstream in order to make the stuff in your one can of trash
  2. Impact of Mining Activities in Africa and the Anthropocene, Against the Grain 10/23/18   https://kpfa.org/player/?audio=297130

 

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT FOR SESSION TEN – Due October 19

  1. Go to “What a Waste: Solid Waste Management to 2050″ https://olc.worldbank.org/system/files/What%20a%20Waste%202.0%20Overview.pdf
  2. Read the report 
  3. Choose 3 case studies from the report (see list below) and be prepared to discuss them in class  

 

Case Studies

  1. A Path to Zero Waste in San Francisco, United States 141
  2. Achieving Financial Sustainability in Argentina and Colombia 143
  3. Automated Waste Collection in Israel 147
  4. Cooperation between National and Local Governments for Municipal Waste Management in Japan 148
  5. Central Reforms to Stabilize the Waste Sector and Engage the Private Sector in Senegal 151
  6. Decentralized Organic Waste Management by Households in Burkina Faso 152
  7. Eco-Lef: A Successful Plastic Recycling System in Tunisia 153
  8. Extended Producer Responsibility Schemes in Europe 155
  9. Financially Resilient Deposit Refund System: The Case of the Bottle Recycling Program in Palau 158
  10. Contents of What a Waste 2.0: A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050 vii
  11. Improving Waste Collection by Partnering with the Informal Sector in Pune, India 161
  12. Improving Waste Management through Citizen Communication in Toronto, Canada 163
  13. Managing Disaster Waste 165
  14. Minimizing Food Loss and Waste in Mexico 167
  15. Sustainable Source Separation in Panaji, India 170 15. Musical Garbage Trucks in Taiwan, China 173
  16. The Global Tragedy of Marine Litter 174
  17. Using Information Management to Reduce Waste in Korea